2D and 3D. What’s the difference.. Really?


One could argue that Half-life is 3D, and the other two are 2D. Someone else would say that Monkey Island is actually 2.5D. And a third guy will say, you’re both idiots, they’re all 3D. So, who’s right? Discussing the logic behind Spark Game Engine.

The confusion stems from not specifying exactly what we mean when we say a game is “3D”. It could either mean this game has the illusion of depth or it could mean that entities in the game have a geometry composed of polygons. So to avoid the confusion, we could now agree on the following:

Half Life 2: 3D world using 3D models

Angry Birds: 3D world using 2D sprites

Monkey Island 1: 3D world using 2D sprites

For Angry Birds, the illusion of depth comes from the parallax effect. When the camera scrolls horizontally, the mountains in the background will move slower than things in the foreground suggesting they’re far away. For Monkey Island, when Guybrush moves over that bridge he’ll get smaller and smaller, again suggesting depth.

The Idea behind Spark Game Engine

When developing Spark, the initial idea was to be able to create both 2D and 3D games. That means the game engine would be able to render 3D geometry (polygons) as well as sprites but also that you can create games that have depth and games that do not. If we stop thinking about graphics for a second, we can create an entire game, create the rules, the gameplay, the interaction between objects, everything, and programming wise we’d be done, even if nothing is displayed on the screen. So now if you knew that your target platform can support hardware accelerated graphics, you can just attach those entities to 3D models. If not, use sprites but either way you’ll only need to write the game once.

To accomplish this, we created a virtual world. This virtual world is a data structure that holds all the information about the game. A “scene” inside that world can have a 3D coordinate system (games width depth), or a 2D one. An FPS game level would use a 3D scene. It’s main menu though would use a 2D scene. Now, logic will be applied to that virtual world to create the gameplay for our game. Later on we can attach a 2D and/or 3D mesh for every entity and let the renderer decide which one to use at realtime.

By using a virtual world as a middle-man and not giving commands directly to meshes (playerModel.x+=50;) we’re decoupling the game logic from the rendering logic, and this can have a lot of advantages. We can provide fallbacks at runtime, we can mix and match renderers without touching the game-code, we could even create a DOM renderer in the future and suddently you could be using Spark to build websites.

Varying Requirements for Every Game


super-marioSo, this covers the 3D geometry and 2D sprites bit. What about the requirement to create a 3D scene for levels with depth but a 2D scene for levels without. Why not use a 3D scene to create sprites for a 2D game (think Super Mario that doesn’t even have parallax) or a main menu, and just keep the z property for everything the same?

This is a legitimate question, and many game engines, like Unity, are doing 2D this way. The problems with this approach is the overhead and additional complexity that comes from trying to use a renderer that thinks 3D, to be used as a 2D renderer. Let’s talk about the latter first.

In a 3D world, you can’t explicitly define what part of your scene is going to be inside your viewing frustum. You define a size for your view, position your camera, set it’s field of view and then you get a render. But in a 2D world all you really want is to either render the whole thing (e.g. a main menu background) or a part of it (a scrolling game). For 2D renderers this is easy, you explicitly specify the area of your scene you want rendered and pass it to the view for further processing (if the area you wanted doesn’t match the view size you will need to decide on scale-to-fit vs widescreen vs cropping, etc). So, what was once a convenience when rendering 2D scenes (a 2D scene rendered on a 2D screen, a match made in heaven) now becomes a problem.

On the main menu example, your 3D game engine will need to calculate how to position the camera or scale your scene so you don’t have to do trial and error by yourself. On the Super Mario example, the 3D camera can’t tell if it’s rendering past the bounds of your scene so you’ll need to hack a solution yourself (min(camera.x,2184);)

3D Renderers

The complexity of how 3D renderers calculate the viewing frustum also doesn’t come without a cost. So you will be spending CPU cycles to produce a behavior that you don’t want in the first place. Also, sprites belonging in a 3D scene have 3D positions (regardless if they share their z value or not) so in order to render them on a view the renderer will be querying the 3D camera and do a lot of transformations (positioning and scaling), a step that can be completely avoided on a 2D scene.

So, to sum up, there is a distinct difference between saying that a game involves a 3D or 2D world, and saying a game uses 3D models or 2D sprites. What we have found while developing Spark is that a game engine can benefit if it makes an effort to be more agnostic when it comes to the entities’ meshes (3D models or 2D sprites), but also make a clear distinction when it comes to rendering a 3D or a 2D world.

If you made it all the way down this article, you now HAVE to leave a comment :P. Give me feedback if this was interesting or not, if I made any mistakes, if you want to propose another article or anything else.

Thanks for reading!

Aris Kostakos2D and 3D. What’s the difference.. Really?


Join the conversation
  • Matthew - October 16, 2016 reply

    hi , i just want to ask if we can make soccer (football) game like
    check this game it’s Awesome

    Matthew - October 16, 2016 reply


  • Bobster Smithy - October 8, 2016 reply

    SO EXCITED I’ve been here for over a year, and finally the end is in sight! I cant seem to find any good game engine that doesn’t require something like C++ or C#, Spark seems perfect!

    btw, can i get a alpha key?

  • Sanych [rusky] - July 29, 2016 reply

    Can I place “magnets”? “Magnets” are points in space that will have their own gravity.

    theodora kapsali - August 1, 2016 reply

    Of course 🙂

  • NeathanF - July 17, 2016 reply

    Around when will it be done? Like somewhere in August or later? I am so excited but I’m kind of worried that about twenty years later this will be done. Please reply 🙂

    theodora kapsali - July 20, 2016 reply

    Why 20 years? LOL! We will have something to release fairly soon, but we’ll no longer be giving out release dates to avoid disappointing.

  • San - July 14, 2016 reply

    Will I be able to add special effects? Like glowing sun, explosions, and other epic things?

    theodora kapsali - July 15, 2016 reply

    Yes, absolutely.

    San - July 29, 2016 reply

    Wow, thnx! Didn’t know Spark is THAT powerful 😀

  • dsp - July 2, 2016 reply

    am waiting for such framerwork. No code for games!

  • David - June 18, 2016 reply

    How long can we expect before Spark comes out?

    theodora kapsali - June 25, 2016 reply

    Soon. But we are no longer giving out dates to avoid disappointing…but the end is near 🙂

  • Rachel Tang - June 6, 2016 reply

    and what kind of game we can develop using Spark? Can we do something like Candy Crush, Temple Run, or Subway Surf?

    theodora kapsali - June 15, 2016 reply

    Yes, yes, and yes 😀 That’s the beauty of Spark – versatile 😀

  • Rachel Tang - June 6, 2016 reply

    It seems so attractive to make own non-coding game by Spark!! Wondering how much is the subscription fee? or license fee?

    theodora kapsali - June 15, 2016 reply

    Haven’t pinned down the pricing, yet. We are looking at a one-time fee with different packages unlocking different features. There will ofc be a free version for you to work with. We’ll also have subscription model for any cloud-based services you’d like (anything requiring server use, will have a monthly charge).

  • Owen Weldlife - June 1, 2016 reply

    Will I Be Able To Make A 2D MMO LIKE Transformice,Club Penguin,Bouboum ,Animal Jam Or Bearville?

    theodora kapsali - June 15, 2016 reply

    Yes, eventually you’ll be able to make an MMO, but don’t expect it for the initial release coming up.

  • Game Developer - May 16, 2016 reply

    Hey! I heard that Spark will come out in April, but it’s May and it’s still not out 🙁 . Hopefully it will come out soon.

    theodora kapsali - June 15, 2016 reply

    yes we’re a bit delayed. On my last email, I mentioned that we will no longer give out potential dates for a release to avoid disappointment. If you’re already on the list, great – make sure you’ve received the email and that you have marked it safe so you don’t miss out on updates 🙂

  • toxicvenom3000 - February 1, 2016 reply

    How do you start?

    theodora kapsali - February 2, 2016 reply

    Gotta wait a bit…it’s in pre-alpha but alpha will be released soon enough 🙂

  • Sinisa - February 1, 2016 reply

    so can i make eg. 3D RTS game like Starcraft2 or not?


    theodora kapsali - February 2, 2016 reply

    You will be able to but not with the alpha…3D will be added later.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Comments Protected by WP-SpamShield Spam Plugin